Nepal: Challenges Ahead
There are number of challenges before Nepal out of which the main are Framing of the new Constitution and Integration & Rehabilitation of Maoist PLA. The delay in Peace Process has generated mistrust between the parties, the impact of which has been felt in discussion about the form of the Government to be adopted in the Constitution. This has led to political instability in the country. The Constituent Assembly is on a fourth six month extension and has to complete their work before 27th May 2012. If Peace process has to move ahead, then the political parties have to become more flexible on governance structure. If the form of the Government has divided the Political Parties, then the debate on Federalism has exposed Ethnic Society of Nepal. The economic condition of Nepal is bad. India has an abiding interest in developments in Nepal and remains committed to providing all assistance that Nepal requires in its transition to a stable, inclusive, multi-party democracy.
Complicated Contours of Indo - Nepal Relations
Dr. Arunoday Bajpai
While India is playing a leading role in the development process of Nepal, she has come to face increasing security threats of both conventional and non-conventional nature. The demand for revision of Indo-Nepal treaty of Peace and Friendship has become more louder, even though its core provisions have been violated by Nepalese rulers time to time in the past. The purchase of advanced arms from China without taking India into confidence, mandatory provision of work permit to Indians residing in Nepal etc are some of the examples of such violation. Even the positive role played by India towards peace and stability in Nepal is seen as meddling in her internal affairs by certain sections of Nepalese society. Due to ideological affinity with Nepalese Maoists the Chinese influence in Nepal is likely to grow up in future. Thus, the present phase of Indo-Nepal relations has come to be characterized by multiple complexities. Some of the conditions and issues imparting complexities to Indo-Nepal relations need further analysis.
Indo-Nepal Ties: From ‘Contention’ to ‘Course-Correction’
Dr. Anil Kumar Mohapatra
The contentious treaties like the Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1950(especially its security clause), the Kosi pact of 1954(especially its flood management and liability issue) and the Mahakali treaty of 1996(especially its dispute over the Sarada river border and power sharing aspect) need to be resolved on an urgent basis. It is said that ‘water may be currently a source of some tension between India and Nepal but it could become the greatest asset to the relationship if a more confident, respectful and cooperative approach is engineered by the two governments’1. In this context, both of them need to find out a win-win situation where India’s ever increasing energy requirements and Nepal’s largely untapped hydro-power capacity could intersect at one point. India is here advised ‘to adopt a more open, generous approach in engaging with Nepal’s interested communities on water and power than it has in the past’2. It is encouraging to find that the two sides have agreed to facilitate increased Indian public and private sector involvement to harness Nepalese hydro-power potential. However, on the whole, the prolonged political turmoil, the wanting of consensus and frequent change of government in Nepal has been the major stumbling block in this regard. For example, during the visit of Prime Minister Prachanda to India in 2008 the respective Foreign Secretaries were directed to discuss the review of the 1950 Treaty of Peace and Friendship and other bilateral agreements but it is of no avail till now. However, India’s readiness for revision has been a positive trend in that direction.
Nepal’s Foreign Policy and Internal Dynamics of Nepal-India Relations
Dr. Madan Kumar Bhattarai
As per the changed political order and impending conclusion of the peace process including the integration and rehabilitation of the ex-Maoist combatants and gradual dismantling of the cantonments, the twin phenomena of peace process and promulgation of the constitution are likely to finally see the light at the end of the tunnel. An early solution of these issues and restructuring of the country along the new political path as already designated and charted by the Interim Constitution can provide a congenial atmosphere for accelerating Nepal’s socio-economic transformation by attracting foreign investments including those from the Indian private sector. There is an awakening that with the long and tortuous political process finally on the point of culmination, the real challenge of the country is on the economic front to make Nepal a viable and robust economy and a dynamic bridge between the two high-growth economies like India and China and to bring about radical change in the socio-economic life of the country.
India-Nepal Eco-Political Relations: Retrospect and Prospects
Dr. Pramod Kumar
This paper is aimed at analyzing the politico-economic situation of Nepal in different time periods under different political setups, reflecting the impact of politico-economic policies on the relationship of these two neighbour plus countries. Hence this paper is divided into four parts- The first part deals with the introduction of the subject, second part discusses the politico-economic situation and relationship between the two countries up to 1990(retrospect) and the third part is devoted to the analysis of the above relationship after the true revival of democratic government in Nepal in post 1990 years (prospects) and the fourth part concludes.
India - Nepal Relations: New Dynamics and Challenges
Dr. Satish Kumar
India-Nepal Relations have moved from cooperation to conflict mode. There are many issues on which both the countries carry divergent views. These differences display an ugly face when a political set up in Nepal controls the power. How did it happen, why did it happen are matter of research and speculation. The change of Nepal’s policy of over dependence on India to equi-distance India vis-à-vis China, amplifies the fact. How did India fail to control its influence over, one of the Himalayan states, which has been a very special strategic partner all through? How did China gainfully continue to move ahead in Nepal and can create a threat perception for India? These are all relevant questions which this article will try to find out with suitable explanations.
Major Powers and India-Nepal Relations
Dr. Rajesh Kumar
The paper looks at the role of major powers like US and China as two very important players in the region. Both continue to pursue geo-strategic policies having bearing upon India- Nepal relations at the dawn of the second decade of the 21st century. China remains concerned about longer presence of US forces in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and ever growing Indo-US strategic partnership. These developments have led China to pursue assertive foreign policy towards South Asian countries. In order to contain the Indian as well as US influence in the region, China is seeking all weather friendship with Nepal on the patterns of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri-Lanka. US’s involvement in this region is not new rather it has increased and pursuance of Af-Pak policy is the reflection of its greater stake in the region. South Asia becomes the vortex for pursuance of policies by major powers having implications for reenergizing India-Nepal relations as the latter is faced with political instability largely attributed to constitutional evolution process in Nepal. This paper examines the policy alternatives of the US and China vis-à-vis India-Nepal relations. In response to the fast changing geo-politico-strategic scenario in the region, India is pursuing multi-prong approach towards different regions of the World, meantime it is strengthening its economic and political links with Nepal. India today is seeking a stable democratic Nepal treading on to the path of development. India-Nepal relations as on today are up for witnessing important changes because of two reasons: first, India giving its total support to the new government formed by Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai recently in Nepal; second, important outcomes after Baburam Bhattarai’s first foreign visit to India. Any success on India-Nepal relations front would depend upon to what an extent their bilateral relations remain immune from the influence of major powers. The bilateral relationship of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri-Lanka with major powers like US, Russia and China need an independent study.